Papers and Articles

Adulyanukosol, K. et al. (2010). Cultural significance of dugong to Thai villagers: Implications for conservation. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on SEASTAR2000 and Asian Bio-logging Science (The 9thSEASTAR2000 workshop), pp. 43-49.

Adulyanukosol, K. et al., (2006). Dugong (Dugong dugon) and seagrass in Thailand: Present status and future challenges. Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on SEASTAR2000 and Asian Bio-logging Science (The 7th SEASTAR2000 workshop): p.41-50.

Al Dhaheri, S. et al. (2017). Abu Dhabi Emirate Habitat Classification and Protection Guideline. Environment Agency Abu-Dhabi.

Andréfouët, S. et al., (2021). Nation-wide hierarchical and spatially-explicit framework to characterize seagrass meadows in the Indo-Pacific: example application to New Caledonia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 173(July).

Beech, M.J. (2010). Mermaids of The Arabian Gulf: Archaeological Evidence for the Exploitation of Dugongs from Prehistory to the Present. Liwa, Volume 2 (3): pp. 3-18.

Bevitt, K. (2020) “Our lives depend on it: Women’s gleaning vital for food and income in Timor-Leste”, WorldFish.

Bujang J.S. et al. (2018). Seagrass in Malaysia: Issues and Challenges Ahead. In: Finlayson C., Milton G., Prentice R., Davidson N. (eds) The Wetland Book. Springer, Dordrecht.

Bujang, J. S. et al. (2006). Distribution and significance of seagrass ecosystems in Malaysia. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management. 9: 203-214.

Burt, J.A. (2014). The environmental costs of coastal urbanization in the Arabian Gulf. City. 18.

Campbell, J. et al. (2015). Carbon Storage in Seagrass Beds of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Estuaries and Coasts. 38: 242-251.

Cleguer, C. (2015). Informing dugong conservation at several spatial and temporal scales in New Caledonia. PhD dissertation, James Cook University.

Cleguer, C. (2015). Spatial mismatch between marine protected areas and dugongs in New Caledonia. Biological Conservation, 184, 154–162.

Cleguer, C. et al. (2020). Dugong (Dugong dugon) movements and habitat use in a coral reef lagoonal ecosystem. Endangered Species Research, 43, 167–181.

Das, H. (2005). Status of Dugongs in Abu Dhabi. Marine Environment and Resources of Abu Dhabi. Chapter 11. P184-199. Environment Agency Abu Dhabi, UAE. Motivate Publishing.

De Iongh, H. et al. (2009). National Conservation Strategy and Action Plan for the Dugong in Indonesia Part I. Scientific Report, Institute of Environmental Sciences. Leiden and Research Centre for Oceanography, Jakarta.

Dencer-Brown, A.M. et. al, Integrating blue: How do we make nationally determined contributions work for both blue carbon and local coastal communities? Ambio (2022).

Derville, S. et al. (2022). Ecoregional and temporal dynamics of dugong habitat use in a complex coral reef lagoon ecosystem. Scientific Reports, 12(552).

Dewsbury, B. et al. (2016). A review of seagrass economic valuations: Gaps and progress in valuation approaches. Ecosystem Services. 18.

Duarte de Paula Costa, M. et al. (2022). The Evolution of Blue Carbon Science. Wetlands 42, 109.

Dunic, J.C. et al. (2021). Long-term declines and recovery of meadow area across the world’s seagrass bioregions. Global Change Biology.

Eros, C. et al. (1992). Dugong Status Report and Action Plans for Countries and Territories. Early Warning and Assessment Reports Series.

Fortes, M., et al. (2018). Seagrass in Southeast Asia: A review of status and knowledge gaps, and a road map for conservation. Botanica Marina.

Fortes, M.D. (2013). A review: biodiversity, distribution, and conservation of Philippine seagrasses. Philippine Journal of Science, 142: 95-111.

Fortes, M.D. (2012). Historical review of seagrass research in the Philippines. Coastal marine science, 35(1): 178-181.

Green, E.P. et al. (2003). The World Atlas of Seagrasses. UNEP-WCMC. University of California Press. Digital version (2010).

Hines, E. et al. (2020). Getting to the bottom of bycatch: a GIS-based to assess the risk of marine mammal bycatch. Endang Species Res 42:37-57.

Hines, E. et al. (2012). Dugongs in Asia. Sirenian Conservation. University Press of Gainesville, Florida, USA, pp. 58-76.

Jones, B. et al. (2022). Dependence on seagrass fisheries governed by household income and adaptive capacity. Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 225 (106247)

Khamis, A. et al. (2023). Long-term persistence of large dugong groups in a conservation hotspot around Hawar Island, Kingdom of Bahrain. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 1–14.

Macreadie, P. et al. (2022). Operationalizing marketable blue carbon. One Earth, Volume 5, Issue 5: 485-492.

Malakar, B. et al. (2022) Record of a Dugong Feeding Trail with a Note on Recent Dugong-Related Incidents Along the Coast of Tamil Nadu, India. Aquatic Mammals,48(1): 21-24.

McKenzie, L. et al. (2021). Seagrass ecosystem contributions to people’s quality of life in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories. Marine Pollution Bulletin 167

McKenzie, L. et al. (2020). The Global Distribution of Seagrass Meadows. Environ. Res. Lett.

Mingli, L. et al. (2022) Functional extinction of dugongs in China. Royal Society of Publishing, 9: 211994.

Nordlund, L.M. et al. (2018). Global significance of seagrass fishery activityFish Fish, 19399-412.

Nordlund, L.M. et al. (2018). Seagrass ecosystem services – What’s next? Marine Pollution Bulletin, 134: 145-151.

Plön, S. et al. (2019). Phylogeography of the dugong (Dugong dugon) based on historical samples identifies vulnerable Indian Ocean populations. PLoS ONE 14(9): e0219350.

Ponnampalam, L. et al. (2014). Aligning conservation and research priorities for proactive species and habitat management: The case of dugongs Dugong dugon in Johor, Malaysia. Oryx, 49 (4).

Preen, A. (2004). Distribution, abundance, and conservation status of dugongs and dolphins in the southern and western Arabian Gulf. Biological Conservation, 118(2), p.205-218.

Rahman, M.A.A. et al. (2019). Marine Protected Areas in Peninsular Malaysia: Shifting from Political Process to Co-Management. Journal of Politics and Law; Vol. 12, No. 4; 2019.

Rajamani, L. et al. (2006). Indigenous Use and Trade of Dugong (Dugong dugon) in Sabah, Malaysia. Ambio. 35 (5): 266-268.

Sheppard, C. et al. (2010). The Gulf: a young sea in decline. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60, no. 1: 13-38.

Shilland, R. et al. (2021). A question of standards: Adapting carbon and other PES markets to work for community seagrass conservation. Marine Policy 129.

Stankovic, M. et al. (2021). Quantification of blue carbon in seagrass ecosystems of Southeast Asia and their potential for climate change mitigation. Science of the Total Environment. 156858.

Tol, S. J. et al. (202). Mutualistic relationships in marine angiosperms: Enhanced germination of seeds by mega-herbivores. Biotropica, 53, 1535–1545.

Unsworth, R. et al., (2022), The planetary role of seagrass conservation. Science, Vol 377Issue 6606 pp. 609-613
DOI: 10.1126/science.abq692

Verutes, G.M. et al. (2020). Using GIS and stakeholder involvement to innovate marine mammal bycatch risk assessment in data-limited fisheries. PLoS ONE 15(8).

Wabnitz, C.C. et al. (2018). Climate change impacts on marine biodiversity, fisheries, and society in the Arabian Gulf. PloS one, 13(5).

Zerner, C. (1994). Through a Green Lens: The Construction of Customary Environmental Law and Community in Indonesia’s Maluku Islands. Law & Society Review, 28(5), 1079-1122.


Reports and Action Plans

Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research (2012). Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Salt Marsh and Seagrass Ecosystems in The South and South East Asian Coasts. Final Report for APN Project.

Pilcher, N. et al. (2017). CMS Dugong MOU Standardised Dugong Catch and Bycatch Questionnaire Final Report.

Asian Development Bank. State of the Coral Triangle: Philippines. (2014).

Department of Environment and Natural Resources – Biodiversity Management Bureau, United Nations Development Programme – Global Environment Facility, Foundation for the Philippine Environment. (2016). Philippine Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan 2015-2018: Bringing Resilience to Filipino Communities.

Department of Environment and Natural Resources – Biodiversity Management Bureau, United Nations Development Programme – Global Environment Facility, Foundation for the Philippine Environment. (2001). Managing Coastal Habitats and Marine Protected Areas. Philippine Coastal Management Guidebook Series, No. 5.

Dugong MOU National Reports.

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Reports

National Biodiversity Working Group. (2011). The National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan for Timor-Leste – 2011-2020. Ministry of Economy and Development, United Nations Development Programme & the Global Environment Facility.

Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Thailand. (2015). Master Plan for Integrated Biodiversity Management (2015-2021).

UNEP/CMS Southeast Asia Regional Meeting on Dugongs and Workshop on Developing Standardised Analysis Protocols for Dugong Questionnaire Survey Project Data for Southeast Asia Region. Lawas, Sarawak. 26-29 July 2011.

United Nations Environment Programme (2020). Out of the Blue: The Value of Seagrasses to the Environment and to People. Nairobi, UNEP.

United Nations Environment Programme (2001). Dugong: status report and action plans for countries and territories.

United Nations Environment Programme (2012). National Review Of Dugong And Seagrass: Indonesia (2012), GEF Project On The Dugong And Seagrass Conservation.



Seagrass Restoration: Bringing biodiversity back to our seas.
The Institute of Environmental Sciences (IES). IES Webinar: Seagrass restoration – Bringing biodiversity back to our seas

Seagrass Ecosystems
International Field Studies – Forfar Field Station

Maldives Seagrass Webinar
Maldives Underwater Initiate & Blue Marine Foundation

What’s so Special about Seagrass?
Marine Conservation Society – Dr. Jean-Luc Solandt

Seagrass-herbivore interactions: present, past, and future
Project Seagrass – Prof. Teresa Alcoverro

Securing a future for seagrass meadows
Project Seagrass – Prof. Carlos Duarte

Restoring Seagrass Beds
UC Davis College of Biological Sciences – Prof. Susan Williams

Seagrass ecosystems around the Philippines
University of the Philippines – Dr. Miguel Fortes

The Vital Role of Seagrasses in Marine Ecosystems
Science for the Public


The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment is a four-year international scientific assessment of the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being. The assessment was conducted by 1,360 natural and social scientists from 95 countries and provides a state-of-the-art scientific appraisal of the condition and trends in the world’s ecosystems and the services they provide.

IUCN Seagrass Species Specialist Group
The IUCN SSC Seagrass Specialist Group (SSG) contributes to and encourages seagrass science and conservation, with the goal of protecting seagrass species biodiversity worldwide and preserving the functions and values of seagrass habitat, including its role in protecting threatened and endangered species that depend on seagrasses for their survival.

Unsung Heros of our Oceans: Seagrass – all you need to know
A comprehensive story map detailing the global distribution and importance of seagrass produced by GRID-Arendal.